In the summer of 1925, there was much more on trial in Dayton, Tenn., than whether or not the teaching of evolution should be permitted. The entire relationship between religion and the public school system was at stake. The evangelicals won that year, when William Jennings Bryan successfully prosecuted high school teacher John Scopes for violating a state law banning the teaching of evolution. But the arguments central to the monkey trial, including the principal question of who controls public educationthe state or the local parentsare as relevant today as they were 80 years ago.
Charles A. Israel, an assistant professor of history at the University of the South, has produced an in-depth analysis of the origins of the battle for the schools in his book, Before Scopes: Evangelicalism, Education, and Evolution in Tennessee, 1870-1925 (University of Georgia Press, 252 pp., $19.95). It is a timely release, given the ongoing, nationwide fight over the role of religion in public life. As Israel notes in the closing chapter, "With so much at stake, the argument shows no sign of soon waning."
Israel has produced a very detailed, scholarly work that, while enlightening, is apparently not intended for the casual reader. This is unfortunate, given the importance of understanding both sides of the controversy. A work more appealing to a general audience could have raised the level of discourse about a subject that sparks so many letters to the editor.
For example, one of the most interesting revelations of the book is the role both the Methodist and Baptist churches played in developing and expanding public education in the reconstructed South. Religious leaders of the late 1800s championed public schools as one of the foundations of Christian civilization, a way to promote not only general education but to reinforce the moral values of the Protestant Christian society of the South.
Their understanding, however, was that they would control what was taught. When they saw the schools used as a forum for subjectslike evolutionthat were contrary to their own societal milieu, they rebelled, putting people on notice that they, not "outsiders," controlled their children's education. Passage of the Butler Bill, prohibiting the teaching of evolution, was followed quickly by the Scopes trial, which, through the new medium of radio, was broadcast throughout the South and the rest of America, where the battle over education continues in the 21st century.
The shooting location for hard bodies gym was formerly the Paramus, NJ location of Tower…
This is like a flashback to the '80s, when Ted Turner was colorizing CASABLANCA and…
That clip is horrifying. It looks like postmortem makeup. Very uncanny valley.
AGGGHHHH that last picture!
LE JOUR SE LEVE is far superior to its American remake, THE LONG NIGHT (1947),…